This publication sheds some light on innovation and productivity in the Caribbean. It begins this important discussion by providing a first-ever, comprehensive evidence-based analysis of innovation and productivity at the firm level. The internationally comparable and statistically relevant data used herein come from two first-of-their-kind micro-level datasets funded by the Compete Caribbean Program: the Caribbean Enterprise Survey (CES) and the follow-up Productivity, Technology, and Innovation (PROTEqIN) survey. The analytical findings confirm the relevance of innovation and productivity to the Caribbean region. Novel results expose how factors such as gender, finance, energy, competition, foreign direct investment, and, particularly, business development programs impact firm-level innovation, productivity, and therefore economic growth.