The logistics industry is one of utmost relevance and principally serves as a motor of private sec-tor development and growth of the economic sectors of a country or region. A logistics industry that is efficient and accessible to everyone is a key element for companies in a country or region in general, and its small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in particular, to successfully compete in this new global context. Despite improvements in Latin America and the Caribbean in recent years, structural logistics problems persist, creating obstacles to exports for firms in the region, particularly SMEs. This paper emphasizes the main challenges faced by the logistics industry and proposes interventions to address these challenges. Moreover, on the basis of case studies the region, the paper analyzes what measures can be taken by SMEs to improve their logistics capacity, thereby improving their export potential. This paper was presented at the Fifth Americas Competiveness Forum for the Inter-American Development Bank and Compete Caribbean Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 5-7, 2011.